Long overlooked in the established literature, historical investigations of Russian Science, Technology, Environment, and Medicine (STEM) have recently benefitted from newfound interest among academic specialists. Informed by a broad range of innovative methodological and theoretical approaches, historians from the US, Europe, and Russian Federation have turned their attention to exploring the myriad political, cultural, social, and economic factors that shaped (and were shaped by) developments in these fields. This installment of the series Russia's Great War and Revolution aims to promote further understanding of Russia's unique contributions to STEM-related fields by documenting and analyzing the complex transformations occasioned by the country's “continuum of crisis” during the years c. 1914–24. In addition to introducing English-speaking audiences to important but otherwise little-known figures and events from the Russian past, this volume's 16 chapters shed new light on longstanding debates regarding the country’s path to modernization; the contributions of its technical and scientific experts; and the extent to which the institutions and methods adopted by Soviet leaders were built upon foundations established by their imperial predecessors. The collection makes significant contributions to multiple fields of inquiry; its authors’ findings and perspectives can be expected to influence scholarly agendas and public understanding for years to come.