Volume 6: The Global Impacts of Russia’s Great War and Revolution: Book 1: The Arc of Revolution, 1917–24

Alexander Marshall, John W. Steinberg, and Steven Sabol (eds.)

The Russian Revolution of 1917 was quickly perceived by both contemporaries and subsequent scholars as not merely a domestic event within the Russian Empire, but as a systemic crisis that fundamentally challenged the assumptions underpinning the existing international system. The revolution posed striking challenges not merely to conventional diplomacy, with the Bolsheviks openly seeking to end the war, spark international revolutionary class war, and vocally backing national self-determination for formerly subject peoples, but to existing social, economic, and ethnic orders. From nomadic peoples in Mongolia and the Central Asian steppe suddenly juggling new dilemmas of greater autonomy or full independence, to German workers, soldiers, and sailors challenging their traditional rulers, or Turkish politicians seeking to build a viable new nation state from the rubble of the Ottoman Empire, there were few political developments anywhere in the world in 1917–24 not directly or indirectly influenced by the Russian Revolution. The Arc of Revolution, which is Book 1 in the RGWR volume The Global Impacts of Russia's Great War and Revolution, examines the reverberations of the Russian Revolution in the geographically contiguous imperial borderlands traditionally contested between Imperial Russia and its geopolitical rivals—the terrain stretching from Finland, through Central Europe to the Transcaucasus and Central Asia. Books 2 and 3 in the volume examine the wider global impact of the revolution in regions of the world noncontiguous with Russia itself, from North and South America to Asia, Africa, Australia, and various parts of Europe. The emphasis in Books 2 and 3, The Wider Arc of Revolution, is on the complex emotional appeal and ideological legacies of Russian communism, including anticommunism, evidenced well into the 20th century.


Alex Marshall, Introduction: Into the Abyss: The Arc of Revolution and the “World Crisis”

Alex Marshall, Lenin and World Revolution, 1917–24

Norman Saul, The Helsingfors (Helsinki) Sailors’ Assembly in 1917

Marko Tikka, Finland’s Civil War of 1918

Karsten Brüggemann, Learning from Estonia Means Learning to Be Victorious? Estonia between the Legacy of the February Revolution and Nikolai Iudenich’s Northwestern Army

Geoffrey Swain, Starting the World Revolution: Latvia’s Soviet Republic of 1919

Mark Jones, Scripting the Revolution: “Russian Conditions” and the German Political Imagination in 1918 and 1919

Thomas Weber, Bavaria’s Seminal Catastrophe: The Revolution of 1918–19

Harald Jentsch, The Hamburg Uprising as Part of the “German October,” 1923

Ignác Romsics, Hungary in 1918–19

Ignác Romsics, Hungary in 1918–19

Matthew R. Schwonek, Strategy for an Emerging State: Poland and the War with the Bolsheviks, 1919–21

Jacek Lubecki, Poland and the Russian Revolutions of 1917

Mark R. Baker, The Russian Revolution in Ukraine and the Ukrainian Revolution of 1917

Vadim Mukhanov, From the Mountains to the Plains: Establishing Soviet Rule in Armenia and Azerbaijan (1920)

Vadim Mukhanov, The Final Act of the Civil War in the Caucasus: The Sovietization of Georgia in 1921

Georgia Eglezou, The Asia Minor War (1919–22)

Vasil Paraskevov, The Impact of the October Revolution on Bulgarian Politics, 1917–19

Steven Sabol, Revolution and Civil War in the Steppe: Alash Orda and the Struggle for Kazakh Independence

David M. Crowe, Mongolia: Battleground of Eurasian Imperialism, 1911–24

John W. Steinberg, The Forgotten Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: The Bread Treaty and Peacemaking in 1918

Steven Sabol, Epilogue