In the last generation a large body of new empirical information has challenged the inherited views of early modern Russia. Much of this new information has been about the state, its administration, practices, and relations with society. Old ideas and terminology need to be rethought, concepts such as westernization, autocracy, or centralization. The amount and pace of change in the structure of the state and its social context is by no means clear, in spite of the new information. Many issues long debated, such as the boyar duma, the assembly of the land, or the systems of taxation need a fresh look. The articles in this collection seek to answer old and new questions, and to explore areas that scholars have only recently recognized to be significant.