Content Edna Andrews: A Synchronic Semantic Analysis of the Preverbs o- and ob- in Modern Serbo-Croatian; Sam Beck: Ethnicity, Class, and Public Policy: Tsiganii/Gypsies in Socialist Romania; Masha Belyavski-Frank: On the Status of Three Modal Auxiliaries in Balkan Slavic and Romance; Gary Bevington: On Classifying Albanian Verbs; Henry R. Cooper, Jr.: Andric's Four-and-a-Half Novels Reexamined; Dimitrije Djordjevic: Foreign Influences on Nineteenth-Century Balkan Constitutions; Thomas Eekman: New Trends in Early Twentieth-Century South Slavic Prose; Demetrios J. Farsolas: The Philike Hetairia and Karageorge in 1817: A Premature Alliance; Pietro Ferrua: Romanian Avant-Gardes as Export Products: The Case of Isidore Isou and Letterism; Mary Ellen Fischer: Women in Romania: Public Policy and Political Participation; Martha Forsyth: A New Traditional Song; Zbigniew Golab: South Slavic da + Indicative in Conditional Clauses and its General Linguistic Implications; Joel M. Halpern and Richard A. Wagner: A Microstudy of Social Process: The Historical Demography of a Serbian Village Community (1775-1975); Shirley A. Hauck: Ethnicity and the Kirchweih Ritual: Symbolism for German-Romanians of Banat; Brian D. Joseph: Balkan Expressive and Affective Phonology -- The Case of Greek ts/dz; Ante Kadic: A Literary Profile of Ivan Meshtrovic; Barbara Kerewsky-Halpern: Talk, Touch and Trust in Rural Healing; Christina Kramer: Analytic Modality in Literary Macedonian; Ilse Lehiste and Pavle Ivic: Geographical Variation in the Perception of Serbocroatian Short Accents; David MacKenzie: Policy of the Serbian Government Toward the Serbian National Movement in the Vojvodina, 1848-1849; Nikola R. Pribic: TALVJ as Interpreter of South Slavic Folklore in America; Marin Pundeff: Bulgaria's Cultural Reorientation After 1878; Robert L. Rankin: Vowel Phonology and Orthography in Several 18th-Century Aromanian Sources; Catherine Rudin: Comparatives and Equatives in Bulgarian and the Balkan Languages; Joan Sheffler: Mask Rituals of Bulgaria: The Pernik Festival, 1980; Dorin Uritescu: Romanian Morphophonemics and Slavic Borrowings; Frank E. Wozniak: The Continuity of Roman Traditions and the Ostrogothic Administration of Dalmatia in the Sixth Century.
From the Oxford University Press Slavica had the opportunity to buy up the limited remaining stock of this fundamental work on formal Slavic syntax when the original publisher, Oxford University Press, decided to declare it out of print. We are delighted to offer it at a lower than half of its original price in both hardcover and paperback. Focusing on issues of case theory and comparative grammar, this study treats selected problems in the syntax of the Slavic languages from the perspective of Government-Binding theory. Franks seeks to develop parametric solutions to related constructions among the various Slavic languages. A model of case based loosely on Jakobson's feature system is adapted to a variety of comparative problems in Slavic, including across-the-board constructions, quantification, secondary predication, null subject phenomena, and voice. Solutions considered make use of recent approaches to phrase structure, including the VP-internal subject hypothesis and the DP hypothesis. The book will serve admirably as an introduction to GB theory for Slavic linguists as well as to the range of problems posed by Slavic for general syntacticians. Preface vii 1. Introduction 3 2. Matrices, Indices, and Morphosyntactic Features 16 3. Across-the-Board Dependencies 61 4. Quantified Structures: Russian versus Serbo-Croatian 93 5. Quantified Structures: Polish and Other Puzzles 130 6. Secondary Predication 220 7. Null Subject Phenomena 287 8. Voice Alternations 333 9. Summary and Conclusions 374 References 379 Name Index 395 Subject Index 399
This collection of essays is offered with sincere gratitude and appreciation to Natalie Kononenko, Professor and Kule Chair of Ukrainian Ethnography, University of Alberta, Canada and one of the leading Slavic folklorists in North America. The essays in the volume have been contributed by Kononenko’s students, as well as colleagues and friends from various countries. The name of the volume, The Paths of Folklore, reflects the honoree’s position as an active fieldworker who continues to tread many paths while collecting folklore materials in both Eastern Europe and North America. It also reflects the intensely interdisciplinary nature of folklore. Essays in this collection treat a range of folklore-related topics as vast as Natalie’s own interests and will appeal to specialists in Slavic folklore and culture.
Horace Gray Lunt (1918–2010), one of the leading Slavic philologists of his time, spent his entire academic career at Harvard University (1949–89), where he helped to train generations of graduate students in Slavic philology and linguistics, many of whom went on to occupy college and university posts throughout the United States. The present volume, Philology Broad and Deep, contains twenty-one essays dedicated to his memory by his former students and close colleagues. These contributions reflect his own devotion to philology, linguistics, and medieval studies, and confirm his enduring influence on those he taught and mentored.
This Festschrift is presented as a mark of esteem and appreciation to Anna Lisa Crone in recognition of her considerable contributions to Slavic Studies as a scholar, teacher, dissertation adviser, and colleague. In three books and numerous articles, Professor Crone has demonstrated her ability to envision first, how literary works are made, and second, how that craftedness contributes to our understanding of vexing philosophical problems faced by their authors. The volume includes studies of Anna Akhmatova, Joseph Brodsky, the Silver Age, Derzhavin, and the myth of St. Petersburg — all established subjects of Professor Crone's teaching and writing. In addition, there are articles about Polish drama, Belarusian literature, Tolstoy, Chekhov, Rozanov, and even Flaubert. The forty-one essays in Poetics. Self. Place. represent substantial contributions to the fields of Slavic Studies and literary criticism as a whole by an impressive array of colleagues, former students, and fellow scholars.
During a distinguished academic career at Belgrade University, UCLA, and Harvard University, Kiril Taranovsky became extraordinarily influential for his contributions to verse theory and for studies devoted to Russian poets, especially those of the Silver Age. His statistical approach to versification led to fundamental findings that have become integral to the understanding of the nature and the history of rhythm and meter, while his investigations of individual poets, with a particular emphasis on Mandel´shtam, led him to define the notion of “subtext” and to examine poems not as isolated texts but as “open,” revealing links to other works and authors. This volume grew out of a conference held at Dartmouth College to mark the 100th anniversary of Taranovsky’s birth. It contains articles on poets from the 18th through the 20th centuries, which honor and reflect his broad interests in Russian poetry. Several contributions investigate aspects of Russian versification, and a final section presents reflections on Taranovsky’s legacy. The possible links between verse form and meaning, a field he pioneered in a seminal article on Lermontov, constitute a recurrent theme. The book concludes with a set of previously unpublished letters, which offer insights to both the man and his ideas.
Review in Slavic and East European Journal, 61.2 (Summer 2017)
The seven related articles in this volume of Indiana Slavic Studies doubly counter the dominant focus in Polish Studies scholarship on "Literature penned by Great Men." This anthology turns the spotlight elsewhere—on the careers, works, and reception of Polish women in the visual and performing arts. The subject of our collection, in both senses, in the Polish woman who has stolen the show—on stage, screen, canvas, and in the media. The essays span the 19th and 20th centuries, from Beth Holmgren's historical analysis of the public/professional lives of Polish stage actresses (Helena Modjeska, Maria Wisnowska, Gabriela Zapolska) in the late nineteenth-century to Andrea Lanoux's critical review of the diverse Polish-language women's magazines that proliferated in Poland during the 1990s. Between these endpoints, Bożena Shallcross limns the innovative psychologized portraiture of painter Olga Boznańska (1865–1940); Elżbieta Ostrowska examines the provocative cinematic career of Poland's premier screen star, Krystyna Janda (b. 1952); Maria Makowiecka delineates the transgressive multimedia art of the award-winning postmodernist Ewa Kuryluk (b. 1946); and Helena Goscilo fathoms the anti-diva self-fashioning and currency of the operatic contralto Ewa Podleś (b. 1952). Halina Filipowicz's essay-afterword to the collection advocates and theoretically elaborates what the preceding entries effectively deploy—a "particularist" methodology that evaluates Polish women's works within the context of their historical experience, cultural traditions, and sociopolitical pressures. All of the essays necessarily problematize gender and address female creativity from its perspective while examining the nexus of complex issues confronted by highly visible female professionals in an unavoidably politicized context: namely, the devaluation or diffusion of gender politics in a "minor" country obsessed with national oppression; and the consequent professional allure and commercial peril of international models and opportunities for training, exhibition, performance, and promotion.
Contents From the Series Editor 1 Introduction 3 1. Beth Holmgren
Public Women, Parochial Stage: The Actress in Late Nineteenth-Century Poland 11
2. Elżbieta Osrowska
Krystyna Janda: The Contradicitons of Polish Stardom 37
3. Helena Goscilo
Crossing Boarders and Octaves: The Polish Diva with a (Di)staff Difference 65
4. Bożena Shallcross
Negotiating the Gaze: Olga Boznańska as a Portraitist 93
5. Maria Hanna Makowiecka
The Fabric of Memory: Ewa Kuryluk's Textile and Textual (Self-) Representations 125
6. Andrea Lanoux
Girlfriend, Your Style Has a Splinter: Polish Women's Magazines and the Feminist Press since 1989 125
7. Halina Filipowicz
The Wound of History: Gender Studies and Polish Particularism 147
Polish Baroque and Enlightenment Literature (covering the period from the late sixteenth to the early nineteenth centuries) follows Professor Mikos's well-received Polish Renaissance Literature, published by Slavica in 1995. As was the case with the Renaissance volume, this is the first collection of texts in English devoted solely to the rich literature, both prose and poetry, of the Polish Baroque and Enlightenment. The book presents in a fresh and accessible form over two hundred selections from the greatest poets and prose writers, along with a separate introduction for each of the two sections and thirty-four illustrations in all. More than two-thirds of the texts are rendered into English for the first time. The book begins with a seventeen-page bibliography, which includes suggestions for further reading. The twenty-page introductions to each of the two parts contain sections on the historical, cultural, and literary background. There is also a chronological table for the period of the Enlightenment. Each author is introduced by a biographical note; the texts are annotated, and the text upon which the translation is based is listed. Professor Mikos was awarded the 1995 Polish PEN Club Prize for his translations, including this book and Polish Renaissance Literature.
The penultimate volume in Professor Michael Mikos's award-winning multi-volume survey of Polish literature in translation is devoted to two separate periods: Realism and "Young Poland", together spanning the years from 1865-1918. The annotated translations are accompanied by two critical introductions to each period, as well as biographical notes on the writers represented.
This double volume covers the periods from 1918 to 1939 and from 1945 to 2000 and constitutes the sixth and last part of the history and anthology of Polish literature from its beginnings to the year 2000. The task of making a comprehensive selection of authors and their works, particularly for the period from 1945 to 2000, was particularly difficult and resulted in regrettable sacrifices and omissions. Firstly, the size of this anthology was limited to about 400 pages, not counting introductions, bibliographies, and illustrations. Consequently, it was possible to include only 63 authors and 224 selections, allowing for an average of about six pages per author. Secondly, the works of many leading poets, novelists, and playwrights […] are already available in numerous English translations, listed in select bibliographies of this volume. Thirdly, there is no contemporary literary canon acceptable to the majority of readers and scholars. Needless to say the present controversies concerning the literary canon, driven often by ideological considerations, do not make the task any easier. Fourthly, a postwar canon imposed on Poland was based on political considerations derived from communist ideology. Finally, the regaining of Poland’s independence in the 1990s brought about a veritable publishing explosion, mostly of historical works, but also of the pulps, crowding out, this time commercially, valuable works of literature. This situation, combined with the coteriean practices of the dominant political and intellectual elites, mostly post-communist, and the subsequent fluctuations in the publishing market, additionally obscured the literary scene and made it difficult to evaluate readers’ preferences. Consequently, the politically distorted and fragmented history of Polish post-war literature requires rigorous reexamination. It is still too early to predict which works will survive the rigorous test of time. But as in the previous volumes, my main goal has been to present a broad and balanced selection of Polish literary texts to English-speaking students and general readers.
This is the first collection of texts in English devoted solely to the rich literature, both prose and poetry, of the Polish Renaissance. The book presents in a fresh and accessible form the greatest texts from a golden age of Poland's literature, culture, and history. The rich tradition of the Polish Renaissance and its crowning achievements are not commonly known to the English-speaking public, in spite of the great figures who lived and worked during this time. This was the period that produced, among others, Nicholas Copernicus, whose heliocentric theory radically changed man's thinking and his view of the universe, and Jan Kochanowski, usually considered the greatest Slavic poet before the nineteenth century. It was Kochanowski who perfected Polish poetic language, declaring with confidence: "I climbed the mountain of beautiful Calliope, where not a trace of Polish foot was seen before me." His "Laments" (translated here in their entirety) remain one of the supreme poetic achievements in any Slavic language of any century. The anthology consists of one hundred and twenty-two selections, sixty-three of them translated for the first time. It encompasses poetry, prose, and drama. The texts include epigrams, fables, songs, sonnets, and elegies, as well as stories, chronicles, letters, treatises, and sermons. Three concise introductory essays describe major historical events, cultural developments, and literary accomplishments of the Polish Renaissance. Each of the twenty-two authors is introduced by a biographical note; the texts are annotated. A select bibliography of works for further study lists English-language anthologies and translations devoted to Renaissance literature, Polish anthologies, and major critical studies. The illustrations depict the monuments of Polish Renaissance culture. Professor Mikos was awarded the 1995 Polish PEN Club Prize for his translations, including this book and Polish Baroque and Enlightenment Literature.
"...deserves high acclaim." (The Sarmatian Review)
"In his translation he succeeds in staying close to the texts' original meaning and language while preserving meter and rhyme." (Polish Review)
The period of Romanticism has a special meaning for the Polish people. In spite of political and military defeats suffered between 1772 and 1863, and, most tragically, the loss of independence, Poland "had not lost her life yet." Considerable credit for her survival and subsequent rebirth must be given to Adam Mickiewicz, Juliusz Slowacki, Zygmunt Krasinski, and Cyprian Norwid, the leading Romantic poets who sustained the nation during its supreme trial, proving once more that the pen is mightier than the sword. Polish Romantic Literature (covering the period from 1822 to 1863) follows Professor Mikos's Medieval Literature of Poland (1992), Polish Renaissance Literature (1995), and Polish Baroque and Enlightenment Literature (1996), the last two published by Slavica. This is the first collection of texts in English devoted solely to the significant literary achievements of Polish Romanticism. The volume, addressed to the general public, students of literature, and scholars, presents 121 texts by twelve major poets, playwrights, and prose writers. Many of the selections are rendered into English for the first time. Three concise introductory essays describe major historical events, cultural developments, and literary accomplishments of Polish Romanticism. Each author is introduced by a biographical note, and the texts are annotated. The volume is illustrated and contains a bibliography of translations, general surveys, and critical studies.
List of Illustrations Foreword Introduction Adam Mickiewicz
Ode to Youth Romanticism Father's Return Mrs. Twardowski To the Niemen To M*** The Hare and the Frong Sonnets II. I Speak to Myself XV. Good Morning XVI. Good Night XVII. Good Evening< Crimean Sonnets I. The Akkerman Steppes II. The Calm of the Sea III. Sea Travel IV. The Storm VIII. Potocki's Grave X. Baydary XIV. The Pilgrim XVIII. Ajudah Konrad Wallenrod Introduction Song of the Brad To *** To a Polish Mother To My Cicerone Evening Discourse Forefather's Eve Part III Act I, scene I Act I, scene II. The Improvisation The Monument of Peter the Great Master Thaddeus I The Manor Farm XI The Year 1812 XII Let Us Love One Another A Stubborn Wife Apothegms and Sayings Degrees of Truths Veni Creator Spiritus Word and Deed Guest Lausanne Lyrics You Ask Why God Mouths Shouting For the Crowd To Spin Love Over the Water Grand and Clear When my Corpse Sits Here I Shed Pure Tears Juliusz Stowacki Separation Hymn My Testament The Funeral of Captain Meyzner In the Album of Sophie Bobrówna For It Is the Poet's Brightest Glory No More Can I Be Frightened by Any Fate To Mother A Fiery Angel-Angel at My Left Side If in My Land at Any Time Whatever Give Me One Mile of Land and Nothing Else To Mother (2) O! Miserable, O! Subjugated In Switzerland I-III The Wreath Was Woven Out of Accursed Matter When the First Cocks Sing Unto the Master Journey to the Holy Land from Naples Song VIII. Agamemnon's Tomb Beniowski Song V. The Supple Tongue. O Lord! Anhelli Chapter I, II, VII Kordian Act III, scene IV Fantazy Act I, scene I, XIV, XV Letter to Mother Zygmunt Krasiński God Has Denied Me the Angelic Measure If Happiness and Glory at Any Time I Scarcely Met You, Yet I Must Say Adieu Ere the Sun Rises, Dew Will Eat Our Eyes Out! Whatever Will Be, Whatever Will Happen Ever and Always I Would Kneel Perhaps The Un-Divine Comedy Part III, IV Irydion Introduction Cyprian Kamil Norwid Autumn My Song(II) "Will I Request Amnesty?" As... Give Me That Blue Ribbon Gernalities In Verona Fate Mercy The Two Siberias Nerves Their Strength Why Not in Chorus Funeral Rhapsody in Memory of Bem To Citizen John Brown Chopin's Piano From a Persian Poet Every Place Has Its Own Night-Symphony Letter to Michal Kleczkowski Antoni Malczewski Maria Song I: I, II, XIV, XVII Song II: IX, XV, XVI, XVII Aleksander Fredro Revenge Act I, Scene I Act III, Scene IV Mister Jowialski Ronald and Donald Henryk Rzewuski The Memoirs of Sir Seweryn Soplica XVI. How I Got Married Józef Ignacy Kraszewski An Old Tale The Old Man and the Old Woman Teofil Lenartowicz The Golden Mug The Guelder Rose Forgiveness A Conversation Between a Peasant and a Scientist Wladyslaw Syrokomla In the ALbum of Princess Puzynina Wincenty Pol The Song About Our Land Cranes and Storks Kornel Ujejski The Snowed-in Hut Some Time-Dying Select Bibliography
Polish Syllables is the first comprehensive study of the role that syllable structure plays in the phonology and morphology of a Slavic language. This autosegmental generative analysis offers completely new solutions to several fundamental problems of Polish phonology and makes the theoretical claim that there are two stages of syllabification which are phonologically significant. Chapter One proposes a set of syllable-building rules. Chapters Two through Six provide evidence for the syllabification rules proposed and for the syllable as a meaningful unit and/or domain of linguistic processes. Chapter Two is an analysis of nasal vowels in Polish. Chapter Three examines gliding and related phenomena such as iotation and palatalization. In Chapter Four vowel-zero alternations are interpreted as syllable-conditioned processes. Chapter Five takes voicing to be a privative feature in Polish and treats voicing assimilation as syllable-dependent. In Chapter Six data from comparative and imperative formation, and from language change, demonstrate that syllable structure governs certain morphological processes as well. It is of considerable theoretical interest that syllable structure is so central in the phonology of a language which tolerates extraordinarily complex consonant clusters, and it suggests that a hierarchical analysis of syllable structure is to be preferred over a linear one.
"...the high overall quality of the work ... application of linguistic theory to the Polish material in such a way as to make the theory accessible to Slavists and the data accessible to general linguists." (from the award letter)
"...breadth of vision is shown ... it is a fascinating and clearly argued study..." (SEER)
"...essential reading for those working on Polish and other Slavic languages ... the first chapter in particular is of interest to more general readers. ...should serve as a resource for many years to come." (Phonology)
"...well researched and presented with great care and conscientiousness." (CSP)
1995 AATSEEL winner of the best book on Slavic linguistics published in 1992 through 1995
Political Humor Under Stalin is an anthology of jokes, wisecracks, and satire from the Soviet 1930's and '40s that provides a glimpse of everyday dissembling and dissent in one of the modern world's most repressive societies. More than merely a joke book, it offers no less than a folkloric counter narrative to the "official" history of the USSR, as well as a ground-breaking discussion of the culture of joke-telling under Stalin. "Political Humor Under Stalin is a resource that will interest historians and cultural critics, and ha the potential to become a class reading in a number of subjects. I enjoyed it immensely: it satisfied the scholar in me, plus it was just plain fun." - James von Geldern, Macalester College
Review in Jahrbucher für Geschichte Osteuropas, Vol. 60, no. 2, 2012 (via Recensio.net, Review platform for European History)
This book presents a systematic approach to the spelling and pronunciation of Contemporary Standard Russian. Beginning with the standard orthography, three transcriptions are derived: the first is appropriate for grammatical (morphological) analysis, the second and third for phonology and phonetics. Students start with what they know--the spelling--and, by using ordered sets of rules, they learn to rewrite Russian words in a way that shows the details of their actual pronunciation. The principles reflected in the rules are valid for all Russian words and are worth knowing in their own right; at the same time, students become familiar with many of the notational devices and technical terms that are commonly used in linguistic description, in addition to many basic grammatical principles of the Russian language. This book my be used by students with one year of Russian and is suitable also for advanced classes.
In addition to analysis of Kaverin's works, this book gives biographical materials, an extensive bibliography of writings by and about Kaverin, a list of translations of Kaverin's work into English and other Western languages, suggestions for background reading, plot synopses, and an index.
This is an English version of Praslavianski i starob''lgarski fonologicheski izmeneniia, published in 1980 by the Publishing House of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Because this innovative and important book was received with great enthusiasm by scholars in many countries, Slavica is happy to be able to make it available to a wider audience. The author is an outstanding linguist and paleographer who is Senior Research Associate in the Institute for Balkan Studies of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Although the author states that "this investigation attempts to provide a basis for the systematic study of the historical dialectology of Old and Middle Bulgarian through the reconstruction of the earliest underlying phonological system common to all Bulgarian dialects," the scope of the book is in fact considerably wider and of general interest to all Slavic linguists. The book applies modern methodology to the study of Proto-Slavic and the earliest written Slavic language, Old Bulgarian. It considers many of the key questions of Common Slavic phonetics and phonology and relates these to the evidence available from the manuscripts. Distinctive features are used, and such questions as rule ordering are discussed, making this book one of the very few on Slavic historical phonology which are based upon up-to-date models of linguistic description. After an introductory methodological section and a consideration of the sources, Chapter 2, "Assimilatory Fronting", treats such topics as the three palatalizations of the velars and vocalic fronting. Chapter 3 covers a variety of topics related in one way or another to the elimination of closed syllables. Chapter 4 is on the reorganization of the vocalic system. The book closes with a 14-page bibliography. "The book is a valuable contribution to the historical dialectology of Proto-Slavic, Old and Middle Bulgarian, and modern Bulgarian, offering new approaches to old controversies and to standard interpretations..." (SEER)
This Concordance, which contains every line of verse written by Russia's greatest poet, is the first and only work of its kind to be published anywhere, and will be an indispensable work for all scholarly libraries and for specialists in Russian poetry. It lists alphabetically all the Cyrillic word forms found in all the basic texts of all the poetry and it gives the following information for each: the number of times that it occurs and also the number of lines in which it is used; it gives the poem-and-line location and quotes in full the complete line in which the form appears. The listing of these Cyrillic word forms is with no exceptions; all the lines of poetry are quoted under each word form except for eleven function words which occur with extreme frequency: a, v, za, i, k, kak, na, ne, no, s, chto. The Concordance is based upon the most authoritative and complete edition of Pushkin's works, the so-called "large Academy" edition, and reproduces the orthography and punctuation of all the Russian-language poems of that edition, including unprintable and Latin-alphabet words in them; it includes all the verse of the basic texts, but not variants. Many special features are included to help the user. Special tables supplement the Concordance proper: Lines Containing Unprintable Words; Lines Containing Latin-Alphabet Words; Hyphenated Words: Normal Alphabetical Order; Hyphenated Words: Reverse Alphabetical Order. An important feature of this Concordance is that it prints the stress for all 42,433 endwords (words that rhyme or could rhyme), so that the reader can tell at a glance whether a given line is fragmentary; otherwise one could not be certain in all instances.
"...zasluzhivaet vnimaniia i bezuslovnogo odobreniia." (Voprosy literatury)
By an analysis of the information about Belkin and the circumstances of the writing of the work, it is shown that Pushkin intended the work as a coded message concerning December 1825 and the events which followed.
Part I: Decoding
1. Belkin's Biography
2. The Publication of Belkin's Manuscript
3. The Correspondence Between the Editor and the Neighbor
4. Pushkin's Code
Part II: Second Reading:
1. Belkin's Variant
2. Belkin's Autobiographical Tales
3. The Structure
4. Pushkin's Tales and History
Part III: Writing and Publishing: 1. The Time of Conception
2. The Narrator A.G.N.
3. Belkin's Other Predecessors
4. Pushkin's Anonymity
Postscript: The Curious Researchers.
"The argument is close and probably as convincing as it is possible to be. ... A worthy bit of literary detective work, written in a clear, concise style, the book is recommended for college and university libraries having good holdings in Russian literature." (Choice)
"Kodjak has presented convincing evidence that Pushkin has given us far more than charming but vacuous romantic narratives. The Tales of Belkin emerge as a coded historical account necessitated by the conditions of strict censorship. New light is shed upon the creative process, and the monograph must be hailed as a meritorious contribution to the annals of pushkinovedenie." (SEEJ)
Pushkin's unexpected nonrhymes and rhymes consitute an important part of his poetics of the unexpected; however, hitherto they have never been studied in any detail, and, indeed have only rarely been even touched upon. This study analyzes individually all the instances of unexpected nonrhymes of Pushkin's completed rhymed poetry (with the exception of Evgenii Onegin), and all the instances of unexpected rhymes in the completed nonrhymed poetry, as found in the basic texts in "large Academy" textual editions (with variants) of 1937-59, and published in Shaw's Pushkin's Rhymes: A Dictionary (1974). ("Completed poems" are those that Pushkin published or tried or wished to publish, and thus show that he was willing for the public to judge his artistry by them.) Emphasis in this study is on the final text, but the study of the variants shows in detail that Pushkin's unexpected nonrhymes and rhymes are by no means the result of carelesness or negligence. Each poetic "imperfection" of this kind has an artistic function to fulfill; some of the most effective of them were introduced during final revisions in the publication process. This study fills an important gap in studies of Pushkin's poetry and poetics. It should be of interest and importance to almost everybody who reads Pushkin's poetry in Russian, from the professional Pushkinist to the beginning graduate (or undergraduate) student of Russian literature who may be reading any of these poems in Russian for the first time. The unexpected nonrhymes are in some of Pushkin's most famous rhymed poems, written throughout his mature period: in eight of the completed long narratives (poemy and povesti v stikhakh), and in fifteen lyrics; everyone who is at all interested in Russian literature knows almost every one of them. In Chapters 1 and 2 they are categorized by artistic function and individually analyzed. One surprise in the categorization is that the "open end" is used in a surprisingly small proportion of these poems. The preponderance of the lyrics with unexpected nonrhyme are "completed fragments" that abruptly conclude with surprisingly varied types of the figure of expressive silence. For each of these nonrhymed endwords there is also consideration of sound repetitions in the poetic context. The analyses show that for these words Pushkin uses sound repetitions quite differently for the rhyme-element than elsewhere in the immediate poetic context, so that the rhyme-sounds stand out. The unexpected rhymes appear in two different kinds of nonrhymed verse: (1) imitations of Russian folk poetry (two song cycles and one nonrhymed folk-style tale), and (2) the nonrhymed dramas. The occasional rhyming in his poems imitating folk poetics (Chapter 3) is characterized by repetend rhyming, by extensive use of near-rhyme, and by conscious use of sporadic medial-and-endword rhyme--something Pushkin never has in his "literary" poems. In a prosescene of Boris Godunov (Chapter 4), Pushkin uses for dramatic purposes another Russian folk verse type: Varlaam's dialogue is peppered with vigorous, pithy rhymed phrases in "spoken verse" (skazovyi stikh). In the nonrhymed verse of Boris Godunov, Pushkin follows the example of Shakespeare in having unexpected occasional rhymes. For Polish "local color," Pushkin took from Romeo and Juliet the ball scene, epitomized by the dramatic use of a (camouflaged) sonnet and for a rhymed exit at scene-end (Chapter 5); like Shakespeare, Pushkin also has incidental rhyming in a number of the other scenes, especially when a character attempts to be persuasive (Chapter 6). In the first of the Little Tragedies (Chapter 7), The Covetous Knight (Skupoi rytsar'), Pushkin similarly uses Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice for repetend rhyming (and significant subtext). Among the occasional rhymes in Mozart and Salieri and The Stone Guest there are further examples of repetend (and near-repetend) rhymes. Nevertheless, Pushkin's use of occasional rhymes is quite different from Shakespeare's, especially in having "quatrains" in which one pair has rhyme but another has near-rhyme (by Pushkin's standards), and in the use of an unexpected rhymed passage with its climax in nonrhyme (for example, Shuiskii's rhymed passage preceding his revealing the name "stolen" by the Pretender). Every chapter of this study breaks new ground, either by treating subjects completely new to scholarship, or by giving treatment to topics that have been barely touched on before.
"One comes away from the book possessing new insights into specific works as well as a greater understanding of Pushkin's virtuosity. ...a highly original and highly accomplished piece of scholarship." (RR) "...many excitements and new revelations ... no serious Pushkin reader can do without it." (SEER) "...a brilliant analysis..." (MLR)